The conventional lathe is a machine that has been in use for many years, and that is used in many different professions, from metal, carpentry or jewelry, even for ceramics.
In this post we will explain the various types of lathes that exist, without going into the modern CNC lathes, which we have already discussed in this post.
Parallel lathes are best known for their versatility when it comes to manufacturing parts, in addition to their simplicity but also the number of operations can offers, external, internal, threaded turning, etc.
In addition, its low purchase cost and low maintenance make it an ideal machine for small workshops or where occasional work is done.
The most modern ones usually include an electronic positioner that allows us to know at what distance we have the car that we are moving and thus eliminate those gaps that we so much hate that the machines have and that tend to be more common the more the lathe worked. One possibility to eliminate this problem is to use shim washers and thus minimize them.
To know all the parts that make up a lathe, in this entry here, you can find them.
The cam lathe, today is little known, since it was replaced by CNC lathes, but not so many years ago, and today also, but they are few, you could find factories with dozens of these machines working.
They have the function of making pieces in series with a bar feeder so they can work without stopping for hours, with the only need to sharpen the tools.Its name comes from how the tool holders move. Under the piece to be cut, they have a shaft that rotates, and this has several cams that move the tool holders depending on the piece to be manufactured, it is pure mechanics. In contrast, they have the problem that achieving decimal precision is complicated, but in their favor, they get an extremely cheap manufacturing cost. Its objective is the manufacture of small parts. All of them use clamps to hold the piece to be machined, since it is a very fast system and it is done automatically.
A turret lathe can be of various shapes, but all are characterized by having a carousel of tools that can be changed quickly during machining.
This carousel can be on several axes, on the longitudinal axis for example to have several bits of various diameters, or on the transverse axis with several tools with different shapes to carry out different operations as diverse as parting or knurling.
These revolving lathes can carry a spindle for precision machining or a simple dovetail to do work in which exact measurements are not essential, such as rounding or sharpening the face of a part.
There are also some that hold the piece with a claw plate or a quick-clamping clamp as well as cam lathes.
Unlike a CNC lathe, we select the tool with which we work manually.
They can also have a bar feeder to make pieces in series.
The wood lathe is very simple, since it only has a motor, a claw plate to place the wood, a tailstock and a support for the tools. In this type of machine, we do not seek to make parts with great precision since all machining operations are done by hand without any measurement element other than the meter or calibrator that we have on hand. Here we seek to do work in which artisanal design prevails, such as a bowl.
The tools they use are called gouges and are made up of a handle and a metal part with a specific shape depending on the work being carried out. A roughing is not the same as a final finish.
The motors of these lathes are usually low power, half horse, since when working by hand, a lot of power could be dangerous.